Kidney And Bladder

//Kidney And Bladder

Your kidneys and bladder are both important parts of your urinary system. The kidneys and bladder are connected through two slender tubes known as ureters. One comes out of each kidney and connects to the bladder. This connection of kidney, bladder and ureters makes up part of what is known as your urinary tract.

Urinary Tract Infections

The most common disorder in the urinary tract is a urinary tract infection, also known as a UTI.

A UTI usually occurs in the bladder when germs enter through the genitals and begin to multiply. This condition is also known as a bladder infection. A bladder infection is generally annoying because it causes stinging or burning pain, especially during urination. But it usually goes away on its own in a few days, or when treated with antibiotics.

But sometimes the germs can migrate up through the ureters and invade the kidneys. This can result in a kidney infection, which is a much more serious situation. If a kidney infection becomes chronic, it can eventually lead to kidney failure, which can be fatal. When your kidneys fail, you must depend on kidney dialysis or a kidney transplant to survive.
A single or occasuional UTI, especially in woman, is not unusual.  However, recurrent infections, or UTI’s in men, can indicate functional or anatomical problems in the urinary tract.


Kidney Stones
A kidney stone is, as the name implies, a rock-like collection of substances that build up in the urinary system of the body. Many people never get them. Others get them many times during their lives. A kidney stone often causes severe pain in the lower back or “flank” region. The pain can last for hours. Some women who have experienced kidney stones say it can be as sharp and intense as having a baby.
Even large kidney stones are not generally life-threatening, though some people who get them will say, “they make you feel like you want to die.”
Sizes of kidney stones can vary greatly. A kidney stone can be as small as a grain of sand, but large kidney stones can be as big as a golf ball. A kidney stone of any size can trigger severe discomfort.
The recent introduction of rigid and flexible ureteroscopy has greatly improved the capacity of the urologist to deal with the problem while the management of stones in the kidney has been revolutionized. These techniques have largely rendered open surgical procedures for dealing with kidney and ureteral stones obsolete.  These problems are routinely dealt with minimally invasive techniques.
Kidney Cancer
Kidney cancer causes about 12,000 deaths each year in the United States alone. Kidney cancer tends to occur in adults after age 50. Twice as many men get kidney cancer as women. Approximately 30,000 patients a year get a kidney cancer diagnosis from their doctor, according to kidney cancer statistics from The American Cancer Society.
There are several types of kidney cancer.
The most common type is called renal cell cancer, or renal cell carcinoma. It occurs in the area of the kidneys that filter blood and produce urine.
Another type of cancer of the kidney is known as transitional cell carcinoma, is a tumor which grows in the area of the kidney where urine collects.
The most common symptom of kidney cancer in adults is the appearance of blood in the urine.
Renal cell carcinoma develops about twice as often in smokers as in nonsmokers. It’s estimated that anyone who stops smoking will reduce their chances of getting renal pelvis cancer by fifty percent. Elimainting smoking would probably cut renal cell carcinoma by one third.
As with most types of cancer, the earlier kidney cancer is detected, the higher the survival rate. Tumors often respond well to treatment if they are diagnosed early.
Treatment options include surgery,cryotherapy(freezing), hormone therapy, biological therapy, embolization, chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
Other Urological Procedures
Cystoscopy, Stamey-Pereyra (Bladder neck suspension surgery, DMSO (Intravesical dimethyl sulfoxide).